The Current PBPath Journal Watch Articles

Wellcome to our journal watch for pancreatobiliary pathology articles, which is released every other month. You may find the previous issues in the archive.

We have created several categories for convenience; however, articles in each category are in no particular order.

Please feel free to fill out our feedback form. You may also recommend articles to be included.


Surgical Pathology


Pancreas


Rab14 overexpression regulates gemcitabine sensitivity through regulation of Bcl-2 and mitochondrial function in pancreatic cancer

Link to full abstract

Virchows Archiv : an international journal of pathology 2018 Sep;():

Rab family protein Rab14 has been implicated in the development of human cancers. To date, its expression pattern, biological function, and potential mechanism in pancreatic cancer have not been explored. In this study, we analyzed Rab14 expression in 103 cases of pancreatic cancer tissues using immunohistochemistry (IHC) and found that Rab14 was overexpressed in 41/103 cases (39.8%). Rab14 overexpression correlated with the advanced stage. Moreover, elevated Rab14 levels indicated poor prognosis of patients with pancreatic cancers. We used BxPC-3 and Capan-2 respectively for plasmid and siRNA transfection. MTT and colony formation assays showed that Rab14 transfection increased cell proliferation and colony formation in BxPC-3 cells. Rab14 siRNA knockdown inhibits proliferation and colony formation ability in Capan-2 cell line. Cell cycle analysis showed that Rab14 facilitated cell cycle progression. Matrigel invasion assay showed that Rab14 promoted BxPC-3 cell invasion while its depletion inhibited Capan-2 cell invasion. In addition, MTT and AnnexinV/PI analysis demonstrated that overexpression of Rab14 reduced gemcitabine sensitivity which conversely was increased by Rab14 knockdown. We also demonstrated that Rab14 upregulated mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP) while its depletion downregulated MMP during gemcitabine treatment. In addition, western blotting revealed that Rab14 overexpression upregulated cyclin D1, cyclin A, cyclin E, p-Rb, and Bcl-2 and downregulated p21. Rab14 also downregulated caspase3, PARP cleavage, and cytochrome c release. In conclusion, our data indicated that Rab14 was overexpressed in pancreatic cancer and promotes growth and gemcitabine resistance, possibly through regulation of mitochondrial function and Bcl-2.


2 Rab14 overexpression regulates gemcitabine sensitivity through regulation of Bcl-2 and mitochondrial function in pancreatic cancer

Virchows Archiv : an international journal of pathology 2018 Sep;():

Rab family protein Rab14 has been implicated in the development of human cancers. To date, its expression pattern, biological function, and potential mechanism in pancreatic cancer have not been explored. In this study, we analyzed Rab14 expression in 103 cases of pancreatic cancer tissues using immunohistochemistry (IHC) and found that Rab14 was overexpressed in 41/103 cases (39.8%). Rab14 overexpression correlated with the advanced stage. Moreover, elevated Rab14 levels indicated poor prognosis of patients with pancreatic cancers. We used BxPC-3 and Capan-2 respectively for plasmid and siRNA transfection. MTT and colony formation assays showed that Rab14 transfection increased cell proliferation and colony formation in BxPC-3 cells. Rab14 siRNA knockdown inhibits proliferation and colony formation ability in Capan-2 cell line. Cell cycle analysis showed that Rab14 facilitated cell cycle progression. Matrigel invasion assay showed that Rab14 promoted BxPC-3 cell invasion while its depletion inhibited Capan-2 cell invasion. In addition, MTT and AnnexinV/PI analysis demonstrated that overexpression of Rab14 reduced gemcitabine sensitivity which conversely was increased by Rab14 knockdown. We also demonstrated that Rab14 upregulated mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP) while its depletion downregulated MMP during gemcitabine treatment. In addition, western blotting revealed that Rab14 overexpression upregulated cyclin D1, cyclin A, cyclin E, p-Rb, and Bcl-2 and downregulated p21. Rab14 also downregulated caspase3, PARP cleavage, and cytochrome c release. In conclusion, our data indicated that Rab14 was overexpressed in pancreatic cancer and promotes growth and gemcitabine resistance, possibly through regulation of mitochondrial function and Bcl-2.

PubMed: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/?term=30267303


3 Rab14 overexpression regulates gemcitabine sensitivity through regulation of Bcl-2 and mitochondrial function in pancreatic cancer

Virchows Archiv : an international journal of pathology 2018 Sep;():

Rab family protein Rab14 has been implicated in the development of human cancers. To date, its expression pattern, biological function, and potential mechanism in pancreatic cancer have not been explored. In this study, we analyzed Rab14 expression in 103 cases of pancreatic cancer tissues using immunohistochemistry (IHC) and found that Rab14 was overexpressed in 41/103 cases (39.8%). Rab14 overexpression correlated with the advanced stage. Moreover, elevated Rab14 levels indicated poor prognosis of patients with pancreatic cancers. We used BxPC-3 and Capan-2 respectively for plasmid and siRNA transfection. MTT and colony formation assays showed that Rab14 transfection increased cell proliferation and colony formation in BxPC-3 cells. Rab14 siRNA knockdown inhibits proliferation and colony formation ability in Capan-2 cell line. Cell cycle analysis showed that Rab14 facilitated cell cycle progression. Matrigel invasion assay showed that Rab14 promoted BxPC-3 cell invasion while its depletion inhibited Capan-2 cell invasion. In addition, MTT and AnnexinV/PI analysis demonstrated that overexpression of Rab14 reduced gemcitabine sensitivity which conversely was increased by Rab14 knockdown. We also demonstrated that Rab14 upregulated mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP) while its depletion downregulated MMP during gemcitabine treatment. In addition, western blotting revealed that Rab14 overexpression upregulated cyclin D1, cyclin A, cyclin E, p-Rb, and Bcl-2 and downregulated p21. Rab14 also downregulated caspase3, PARP cleavage, and cytochrome c release. In conclusion, our data indicated that Rab14 was overexpressed in pancreatic cancer and promotes growth and gemcitabine resistance, possibly through regulation of mitochondrial function and Bcl-2.

PubMed: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/?term=30267303


- CD138/syndecan-1 in pancreatic solid and pseudopapillary neoplasms

Journal of clinical pathology 2018 Oct;():

PubMed: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/?term=30275097


  • High prevalence of Hereditary Cancer Syndromes and Outcomes in Adults with Early-Onset Pancreatic Cancer

http://cancerpreventionresearch.aacrjournals.org/content/early/2018/09/29/1940-6207.CAPR-18-0014


  • Molecular alterations associated with metastases of solid pseudopapillary neoplasms of the pancreas

https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/abs/10.1002/path.5180


- Molecular alterations associated with metastases of solid pseudopapillary neoplasms of the pancreas

The Journal of pathology 2018 Oct;():

PubMed: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/?term=30306561

Solid pseudopapillary neoplasms (SPN) of the pancreas are rare, low-grade malignant neoplasms that metastasise to the liver or peritoneum in 10-15% of cases. They almost invariably present somatic activating mutations of CTNNB1. No comprehensive molecular characterization of metastatic disease has been conducted to date. We performed whole-exome sequencing and copy-number variation (CNV) analysis of 10 primary SPN and comparative sequencing of 5 matched primary/metastatic tumour specimens by high-coverage targeted sequencing of 409 genes. In addition to CTNNB1 activating mutations, we found inactivating mutations of epigenetic regulators (KDM6A, TET1, BAP1) associated with metastatic disease. Most of these alterations were shared between primary and metastatic lesions suggesting that they occurred before dissemination. Differently from mutations, the majority of CNVs were not shared among lesions from the same patients and affected genes involved in metabolic and pro-proliferative pathways. Immunostaining of 27 SPNs showed that loss or reduction of KDM6A and BAP1 expression were significantly enriched in metastatic SPNs. Consistent with an increased transcriptional response to hypoxia in pancreatic adenocarcinomas bearing KDM6A inactivation, we showed that mutation or reduced KDM6A expression in SPNs is associated with increased expression of the HIF1α-regulated protein GLUT1 at both primary and metastatic sites. Our results suggest that BAP1 and KDM6A function is a barrier to the development of metastasis in a subset of SNPs, which might open novel avenues for the treatment of this disease.



Pancreas Stage


- ASO Author Reflections: Even in Pancreatic Cancer, not all N Diseases are Created Equal

Annals of surgical oncology 2018 Oct;():

PubMed: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/?term=30284129


  • The New American Joint Committee on Cancer TNM Staging System for Pancreatic Cancer—Balancing Usefulness With Prognostication

https://jamanetwork.com/journals/jamasurgery/fullarticle/2705293


  • International Validation of the Eighth Edition of the American Joint Committee on Cancer (AJCC) TNM Staging System in Patients With Resected Pancreatic Cancer

https://jamanetwork.com/journals/jamasurgery/fullarticle/2705296


- International Validation of the Eighth Edition of the American Joint Committee on Cancer (AJCC) TNM Staging System in Patients With Resected Pancreatic Cancer

JAMA surgery 2018 Oct;():e183617

Importance: The recently released eighth edition of the American Joint Committee on Cancer TNM staging system for pancreatic cancer seeks to improve prognostic accuracy but lacks international validation. Objective: To validate the eighth edition of the American Joint Committee on Cancer TNM staging system in an international cohort of patients with resected pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma. Design, Setting, and Participants: This international multicenter cohort study took place in 5 tertiary centers in Europe and the United States from 2000 to 2015. Patients who underwent pancreatoduodenectomy for nonmetastatic pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma were eligible. Data analysis took place from December 2017 to April 2018. Exposures: Patients were retrospectively staged according to the seventh and eighth editions of the TNM staging system. Main Outcomes and Measures: Prognostic accuracy on survival rates, assessed by Kaplan-Meier and multivariate Cox proportional hazards analyses and concordance statistics. Results: A total of 1525 consecutive patients were included (median [IQR] age, 66 (58-72) years; 802 (52.6%) male). Distribution among stages via the seventh edition was stage IA in 41 patients (2.7%), stage IB in 42 (2.8%), stage IIA in 200 (13.1%), stage IIB in 1229 (80.6%), and stage III in 12 (0.8%); this changed with use of the eighth edition to stage IA in 118 patients (7.7%), stage IB in 144 (9.4%), stage IIA in 22 (1.4%), stage IIB in 643 (42.2%), and stage III in 598 (39.2%). With the eighth edition, 774 patients (50.8%) migrated to a different stage; 183 (12.0%) were reclassified to a lower stage and 591 (38.8%) to a higher stage. Median overall survival for the entire cohort was 24.4 months (95% CI, 23.4-26.2 months). On Kaplan-Meier analysis, 5-year survival rates changed from 38.2% for patients in stage IA, 34.7% in IB, 35.3% in IIA, 16.5% in IIB, and 0% in stage III (log-rank P < .001) via classification with the seventh edition to 39.2% for patients in stage IA, 33.9% in IB, 27.6% in IIA, 21.0% in IIB, and 10.8% in stage III (log-rank P < .001) with the eighth edition. For patients who were node negative, the T stage was not associated with prognostication of survival in either edition. In the eighth edition, the N stage was associated with 5-year survival rates of 35.6% in N0, 20.8% in N1, and 10.9% in N2 (log-rank P < .001). The C statistic improved from 0.55 (95% CI, 0.53-0.57) for the seventh edition to 0.57 (95% CI, 0.55-0.60) for the eighth edition. Conclusions and Relevance: The eighth edition of the TNM staging system demonstrated a more equal distribution among stages and a modestly increased prognostic accuracy in patients with resected pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma compared with the seventh edition. The revised T stage remains poorly associated with survival, whereas the revised N stage is highly prognostic.

PubMed: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/?term=30285076


- A Refined Staging Model for Resectable Pancreatic Ductal Adenocarcinoma Incorporating Examined Lymph Nodes, Location of Tumor and Positive Lymph Nodes Ratio

Journal of Cancer 2018 ;9(19):3507-3514

PubMed: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/?term=30310507

Background: Nodal status and tumor site are prognostic factors for resectable pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC). Parameters for nodal status are diverse, and the number of examined lymph nodes (eNs) needed for good prognosis are uncertain. We try to modify staging system of resectable PDAC with parameters mentioned above by recursive partitioning analysis. Methods: Patients from the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER) database were divided into training cohort and internal validation cohort, randomly. PDAC patients from Sun Yat-sen University Cancer Center were regarded as external validation cohort. The training cohort was used to refine staging model by recursive partitioning analysis, while the internal validation cohort and the external validation cohort were applied to assess discriminatory capacity of staging model. For parameters included in the modified model, their effects were studied. Results: The number of eNs, tumor site and tumor size were risk factors for positive nodal status. Lymph nodes ratio (LNR), tumor site, eNs and T stages of 8th the American Joint Committee on Cancer (AJCC) were selected to develop a refined model, dividing patients into 5 groups of different outcomes, preceding 8th AJCC classification. Besides, we found that (1) for small PDAC (diameter < 1cm), lymph node metastasis was rarely found; (2) enough eNs were needed to ensure better prognosis of node-negative patients; (3) tumors in the head of pancreas were prone to lymph nodes metastasis; (4) for node-positive patients, LNR was a better nodal parameter compared to positive lymph nodes (pNs). Conclusion: Our improved staging system helps to illuminate the interactions among tumor site, size and eNs.



Bile Ducts


- ASO Author Reflections: Re-resection of Positive Bile Duct Margin for Hilar Cholangiocarcinoma

Annals of surgical oncology 2018 Oct;():

PubMed: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/?term=30288652